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Friday, October 17, 2008

Non Traditional Animal Feed sri lanka

Ipil Ipil Leaf
Ipil-Ipil Leaf Meal
• The young foliage is very palatable to cattle.
• rich in protein and nutritious.
• leaves should not be fed to breeding animals.
• they may affect reproduction.
Toxicity
• The leaves and seeds contain the glucoside mimosine
• which may cause loss of hair in horses and young cattle.
• The treated material is allowed to stand for a week before being mixed with feeds .
• But little toxicity remains.
Nutrition Composition
(% dry matter)
How to Reduced Toxicity
• The addition of iron salts decreases toxicity.
• treated material is allowed to stand for a week before being mixed with feeds.
• The mimosine content can also be reduced by soaking in water and drying.
Cassava
Cassava
• Cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics for its edible roots.
• cassava roots intended for human consumption
• It is possible to obtain from cassava more than 6 tons of crude protein per hectare.
Toxicity
• Cassava contain a glucoside, linimarin.
• which is acted upon by an enzyme to liberate prussic acid.
• These have to be processed before being used as feed.
How to Reduced Toxicity
• wash and squeeze them until the toxic substance is eliminated.
• toxic elements can also be removed by cooking or by drying slices of the roots for about two weeks.
Usage
• principal energy source for dairy cattle
• Cassava can replace almost all of the grain in the diets with little reduction in performance.
• Inclusion levels of up to 65%
• preferably pelleted, do not seem to affect health.
• Cassava leaf and stem meal has been used at the 35% level in dairy cow concentrates
Problems
• cassava feed has yielded similar egg production, although egg weight was significantly reduced.

• The forage has been used to provide by-pass protein to ruminants fed urea and molasses.
As % of dry matter
Groundnut
Groundnut
• These have proved to be an excellent feed and are also exceptionally palatable.
• Whole cured plants can be fed with advantage to dairy and beef cattle
Importance
• solid particles that consists of rich proteins, minerals which are utilised for making oil cakes.


• It is also used for animal foods and very necessary for poultry.



Amino acid composition as % of crude protein
Cotton Seed Poonac

Cotton Seed

• The cotton-seed consists of two parts: the hull, from which the staple cotton lint and linters arise, and the kernel, from which the oil and meal are obtained.
• The nutritive value of cottonseed products depends on proportions of husks and lint.
• often the whole seed is extracted for oil.
Importance
• Undecorticated oilcake is much richer in fibre and lower in protein.
• Cottonseed meal is an excellent protein supplement for cattle.
• the cottonseed cake is broken, the fibres can be seen.
• 1.7 tons of cottonseed yields about residual oil in hydraulic-press cake is usually between 4% and 8%
Toxicity
• seed embryo contains yellow pigment called gossypol.
• that cotton seeds may contain from 0.3-20 g/kg DM of gossypol
• which is an antioxidant and inhibitor and is toxic to monogastric animals.
• pigs and rabbits are the most sensitive.
• Both decorticated and undecorticated cottonseed meal have a constipating effect on cattle

• The general symptoms of gossypol toxicity are constipation, depressed appetite and loss of weight.
• Although acute toxicity is low, ingestion of a small amounts over a prolonged period can be lethal.
How to Reduced Toxicity
• The free gossypol content of cottonseed meal decreases during processing and varies according to the methods used.
• In new seed, free gossypol accounts for 0.4-1.4% of the weight.
• Processing conditions have to be carefully controlled because, binding of gossypol to lysine at high temperatures.
cotton cake As % of dry matter
Disadvantage
• Cottonseed meal has a relatively low rumen degradability.
• cottonseed is low in lysine
• Determination of the amount of free gossypol in a meal requires laboratory facilities.

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